Utility cyclingAlternatively, the low-density, non-circular (i.e., linear) settlement patterns characteristic of urban sprawl tends to discourage cycling. Initial training and examination took place on simulated road layouts within school playgrounds.
In the Netherlands, some cycle training courses are targeted at women from immigrant communities, as a means of overcoming such obstacles to cycling by women from developing countries. As with other walks of life, utility cyclists may form associations in order to promote and develop cycling as an everyday form of transport. The key ingredients for this are claimed to be: It has been argued in relation to this aspect of Dutch or Danish policy that ongoing investment in rail services is vital to maintaining their levels of cycle use. An often forgotten major success story is the integration of cycling and public transport is Japan. In January 2007, the European parliament adopted a motion decreeing that all international trains must carry bicycles. In Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, three bus routes have externally mounted carriers for bicycles.
This includes the same network of public roads that is available for other road vehicle users, minus those roads from which cyclists have been banned (most freeways), plus additional routes that are not available to other types of vehicle, such as cycle tracks and (in some jurisdictions) sidewalks. The manner in which the public roads network is designed, built and managed can have a significant effect on the utility and safety of cycling as a form of transport. When the bike is stolen, the police can locate it and arrest the thieves.
In cities, the bicycle courier is often a familiar feature, and freight bicycles are capable of competing with trucks and vans particularly where many small deliveries are required, especially in congested areas. Bicycle training schemes can be differentiated according to whether they are aimed at children or adults. In the UK, the now superseded National Cycle Proficiency scheme was focused on primary schoolchildren aged 8 and above.
In 1996, the British Cyclists Touring Club (CTC) and the Institute for Highways and Transportation jointly produced the document Cycle-friendly infrastructure: Guidelines for planning and design (CFI). This is held to be particularly important on routes with a high proportion of wide vehicles such as buses or HGVs.
CFI states that free-flowing arrangements are hazardous for cyclists and should be avoided. How traffic signals are designed and implemented directly impacts cyclists. One method for reducing potential friction between cyclists and motorised vehicles is to provide Wide Kerb (nearside) lanes (UK) or Wide outside through lanes (USA). The key issue is whether the cycling network provides the users with direct, convenient routes minimising unnecessary delay and effort in reaching key destinations.
This defined a hierarchy of measures for cycling promotion in which the goal is to convert a more or less cyclist-hostile roads infrastructure into one which encourages and facilitates cycling: Summaries of the actions that have been successful in the Netherlands are available in English. Removing traffic can be achieved by straightforward diversion or alternatively reduction. Alternatively, other interests might seek to market cycling negatively for their own purposes.
The London congestion charge reportedly resulted in a significant increase in cycle use within the affected area. Reduction of the speed of motor traffic has traditionally been attempted by the introduction of statutory speed limits. It is also reported that the extra motor-traffic such communities generate tends to increase overall per-capita traffic casualty rates.
Cycle training may also be offered in an attempt to overcome cultural unfamiliarity with cycling or perceived cultural obstacles to bicycle use. New Road in Brighton was remodelled using this philosophy, and the results were a 93% reduction in motor traffic and a 22% increase in cycling traffic.
The UK Town and Country Planning Association cites research by the New Economics Foundation that notes a continuing process of change in retail provision. It is arguable that in such a retail/planning policy environment use of bicycles ceases to be a viable option for many shoppers and access to a private motor-car or public transport becomes a necessary prerequisite for access to basic services. Cycle training is another measure that is advocated as a means of maintaining or increasing levels of cycle use. By comparison, before the commencement of registration, the recovery rate in France was about 2%. In some areas of the United Kingdom, bicycles fitted with location tracking devices are left poorly secured in theft hot-spots.
No explicit, or even implicit priority is given to traffic travelling along the road, so with no assumptions of priority being possible, all road users need to be aware of all other road users at all times. Bicycle theft discourages regular cyclists from buying new bicycles, as well as putting off people who might want to invest in a bicycle. Several measures can help reduce bicycle theft: Certain European countries apply such measures with success, such as the Netherlands or certain German cities using registration and recovery.
Utility or transportational cycling generally involves travelling short and medium distances (several kilometres, not uncommonly 3-15 kilometers one way, or somewhat longer). It is the most common type of cycling in the world.
Examples of diversion include the construction of arterial bypasses and ring roads around urban centres. Traffic reduction can involve direct or indirect methods. Thus interests from the car lobby may seek to belittle cyclists in an attempt to enhance their own status as motorists.
Designs that propose to resolve the contradiction between the cul-de-sac and the traditional interconnected network, such as the Fused Grid, have been proposed and built with varying levels of success. The cycling infrastructure comprises all the public ways that are available to cyclists travelling from one destination to another. In many jurisdictions bicycles must be fitted with a bell; reflectors; and, after dark, front and rear lights. The use by cyclists of vests or armbands fluorescent in daylight or reflective at night can increase a cyclist s conspicuity, although these are not an alternative to a legally compliant lighting system.
The European Cyclists Federation is the umbrella body for such groups in Europe. A different financial model called bicing is used in Barcelona, which is paid for by car owners parking on public streets and not by advertising - which rather ironically is contracted to JC Decaux in some places. Cemusa, another street media company have a system running in Pamplona and are believed to be pursuing some US sites (they have the street media contract in New York City) Modern bicycle technology supports the shift towards utility cycling: Road cycling · Segregated cycle facilities · Vehicular cycling · Bicycle commuting .
Car ownership rates can also be influential. In some cases the nature of the cycling infrastructure and the prevailing weather conditions may make it very hard to both cycle and maintain the work clothes in a presentable condition.
They also provide more room for cyclists to filter past queues of cars in congested conditions. Shared space schemes extend this principle further by removing the reliance on lane markings altogether, and also removing road signs and signals, allowing all road users to use any part of the road, and giving all road users equal priority and equal responsibility for each others safety. It is argued that such workers can be encouraged to cycle by providing lockers, changing rooms and shower facilities where they can change before starting work. The theft of bicycles is one of the major problems that slow the development of urban cycling.
It includes commuting, going to school, high school or college, running errands, and delivering goods or services. In contrast, other communities may use a cul-de-sac based, housing estate/housing subdivision model where minor roads are disconnected and only feed into a street hierarchy of progressively more arterial type roads.
Parents sometimes add rear-mounted child seats and/or an auxiliary saddle fitted to the crossbar to transport children. Factors affecting cycling levels may include: town planning (including quality of infrastructure: cyclist friendly vs.
In general, roads infrastructure based on prioritising certain routes in an attempt to create a state of constant flow for vehicles on that route, will tend to be hostile to those not on that route. This system, by giving equal priority to all road users, and by removing conventional road markings, road signs and road conventions, capitalises on the tendency for all road users to respect and trust each other when they are interacting on an equal basis.
For example, in the Netherlands and Denmark a large number of train journeys may start by bicycle. Diversion involves routing through-traffic away from roads used by high numbers of cyclists and pedestrians.
Simultaneously it may be alleged that the safety impacts of cycle facilities have been overstated and/or misrepresented. Chain-guards and mudguards, or fenders, protect clothes and moving parts from oil and spray.
flat), and climate. It is argued that such schemes do not just build confidence in the students but also make it more likely that parents will let their children cycle to school.
In this, children would start by gaining an off-road certificate working up to their on-road certificate by the age of ten. Promotional messages and tactics may include: Various interests may wish to portray a negative image of utility cycling on public roads for various reasons.
This approach has reputedly increased the stolen bicycle recovery rate to more than 40%. Societal benefits focus on general environmental and public health issues.
Payment for using the bikes is done with special smart cards. Competitor Clear Channel then operating as Adshel opened the first example of this in Rennes in 1997, and has several other sites including Oslo, Stockholm, Sandnes & Trondheim, most generally similar to that offered by their competitor. In New York City, more than half of all households do not own a car (the figure is even higher in Manhattan, over 75%), and walk/bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city. Decisions taken by various levels of government, as well as local groups, residents organisations and public- and private-sector employers, can all have an impact on the so-called modal choice or modal split in daily transport.
Since mid-2004, France has instituted a system of registration, in some places allowing stolen bicycles to be put on file in partnership with the urban cyclists associations. Where such services are not available, some cyclists get around this restriction by using folding bikes that can be brought onto the train or bus like a piece of luggage. However, there are strong cultural variations in how cycling is treated in such situations.
adopted similar parking reduction policies in the 80s and 90s. Direct traffic reduction methods can involve straightforward bans or more subtle methods like road pricing schemes or road diets. Front-mounted wicker or steel baskets for carrying goods are often used.
The great car economy philosophy of the Thatcher government directly favoured the growth of out-of-town retail centres at the expense of established retail services in British towns and cities. According to Irish 1996 Census data, over 55% of cycling workers travelled 3 miles (4.8 km) or less, 27% 5 miles (8 km) or less and only 17% travelled more than 5 miles in their daily commute.
Velotaxis can also provide a public transport service like buses and taxicabs. Utility cycling is believed to have several social and economic benefits. Panniers or special luggage carriers (including waterproof packing bags) enable the transport of goods and are useful for shopping.
Official road safety organisations have been accused of distributing literature that emphasizes the danger of cycling on roads while failing to address attitudinal issues among the drivers of motor vehicles who are the main source of road danger. The car industry s marketing efforts frequently try to associate car use with a perception of increased social status. Kick stands help with parking.
Policies that encourage utility cycling have been proposed and implemented for reasons including: improved public health Utility bicycles have many standard features to enhance their usefulness and comfort. The accusation has been made that the object is to impose on the public mind a perception that cycling by the public on public roads is too dangerous or impossible to do unless cycle facilities are provided first. If significant use of bicycles for shopping trips is to be achieved, sufficient retail services must be maintained within reasonable cycling distances of residential areas.
Trailers of various types and load capacities may be towed to greatly increase cargo capacity. In countries like Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany the high levels of utility cycling also includes shopping trips e.g.
This approach has now been supplemented by the new National Standard for cycle training which is more focussed on practical on-road training. In the United States, the League of American Bicyclists Road 1/2 courses, based on the Effective Cycling program, has modules aimed at all ages from children to adult beginners to more experienced adults. Some governments, wishing to promote private car use, have organized and funded publicity designed to discourage road cycling.
A pro-cycling paper, stated to have been accepted for publication in the Transport Reviews journal, states that the provision of separate cycling facilities appears to be one of the keys to the achieving of high levels of cycling in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. Secure parking is argued to be a key factor influencing the decision to cycle. Conversely, at particular destinations or in cultures where cycling is seen as an unwelcome or inappropriate activity, bicycle parking may simply not be provided or else deliberately placed at awkward, out-of-sight locations away from public view. Some people need to wear special clothes such as business suits or uniforms in their daily work. This sometimes leads to the dismantling of organised bicycle theft rings. Cycling can often be intregrated successfully with other transport modes.
The flip side of this tactic implies efforts to portray alternative transport modes, such as cycling, as indicators of reduced social status and/or poverty. There is evidence that people who live in such estates are heavier than people who live in places where walking and cycling are more convenient.
The benefits for the cyclist tend to focus issues like reduced journey times in congested urban conditions and the health benefits which the cyclist obtains through regular exercise. The urban form can influence these issues, compact and circular settlement patterns tending to promote cycling.
Utility cycling encompasses any cycling not done primarily for fitness, recreation such as cycle touring, or sport such as cycle racing, but simply as a means of transport. Settlements that provide a dense roads network consisting of interconnected streets will tend to be viable utility cycling environments. Aspects of the cycling infrastructure may be viewed as either cyclist-hostile or as cyclist-friendly.
In developing economies, a large amount of utility cycling may be seen simply because the bicycle is the most affordable form of vehicular transport available to many people. In richer countries, where people can have the choice of a mixture of transport types, a complex interplay of other factors influences the level of bicycle use.
The training involves teaching existing or potential cyclists bike handling, various roadcraft or cyclecraft skills and educating them on the safe, lawful use of the roads. Experiences where these schemes are in use show that road users, particularly motorists, undirected by signs, kerbs or road markings, reduce their speed and establish eye contact with other users.
The advertising company JCDecaux has launched its Cyclocity programs in Paris, Lyon, Córdoba and Vienna. In some cases various factors may be manipulated in a manner that deliberately seeks to encourage or discourage various transport modes, including cycling. The League of American Bicyclists has designated a set of five criteria for evaluating the friendliness of a town or city to bicycles.
For instance in the Irish university city of Galway the secure parking of bikes is forbidden within the grounds of the central train station. Research carried out by the Transport Research Laboratory describes shared bus cycle lanes as generally very popular with cyclists As of 2003, mixed bus/cycle lanes accounted for 118 km of the 260 km of cycling facilities in Paris. The use of segregated cycle facilities such as cycle lanes and cycle tracks is often advocated as a means of promoting utility cycling.
These associations may lobby various institutions to encourage political support or to oppose measures that they judge counter-productive, such as to oppose the introduction of compulsory bicycle helmet legislation. Copenhagen has a free bike scheme called City Bikes, paid by advertising on the bikes. Rear luggage carriers can be used to carry items such as school satchels.
In the late 20th century more comprehensive programs of education, enforcement and engineering have been undertaken. Some campaigners view one-way street systems as a product of traffic management that focuses on trying to keep motorised vehicles moving regardless of the social and other impacts. In general, junction designs that favour higher-speed turning, weaving and merging movements by motorists tend to be hostile for cyclists. Results from the thousands of such implementations worldwide all show casualty reductions and most also show reduced journey times. CFI argues for a marked lane width of 4.25 m. Shared Bus and Cycle lanes are also a widely endorsed method for providing for cyclists.
As with other areas of competition a marketing or propaganda conflict takes place between both sides. Two themes predominate in cycling promotion 1) the benefits for the cyclist and 2) the benefits for society and the environment that may occur if more people choose to cycle. A highly effective indirect method of reducing motor traffic, and facilitating cyclist and pedestrian use, is to adopt the shared space system.
Such communities may discourage cycling by imposing unnecessary detours and forcing all cyclists onto arterial roads, which may be perceived as busy and dangerous, for all trips regardless of destination or purpose. In developed countries cycling has to compete with, and work with, alternative transport modes such as private cars, public transport and walking.
A report on the promotion of walking and cycling (Hydén, et al., 1999) discussed safety clothing and equipment and stated that there is no doubt that both pedestrian reflectors and bicycle helmets are reducing the injury risk of their users quite considerably. Protective rain gear is often an essential part of the utility cyclist s wardrobe, especially in countries with high rainfall levels. Many different factors combine to influence levels of utility cycling. Promoters of bicycle helmets may seem to ridicule cyclists who choose not to use them, and are accused of significantly overstating and exaggerating both the risks posed to cyclists and the protective benefits of helmets. Similar accusations have been made against some proponents of segregated cycle facilities.
Here hundreds of bikes are made available for hire from special, widely-dispersed bicycle stands. These extra wide lanes increase the probability that motorists will be able to pass cyclists at a safe distance without having to change lanes.
Observers in some car-focused cultures have noted a tendency to perceive or portray people who use bicycles as members of a social out-group with attributed negative connotations. Most controversially, negative images may also be promoted by people who claim to be representing the interests of cyclists. Thus cycling levels are not influenced just by the attractiveness of cycling alone, but also by what makes the competing modes more or less attractive. In developed countries with high utility cycling levels, utility cyclists tend to undertake relatively short journeys.
However, cut-price car parking is available for motorists holding a valid train ticket. An individual s perception of cycling and their expectations of how they might be perceived if they are seen cycling can affect their decision to cycle or not. In 1990, the Dutch adopted the ABC guidelines, specifically limiting developments that are major attractants to locations that are readily accessible by non-car users. Settlements that provide a dense road network consisting of interconnected streets will tend to be viable utility cycling environments.
Town planning may have a key impact in deciding whether key destinations, schools, shops, colleges, health clinics, public transport interchanges remain within a reasonable cycling distance of the areas where people live. Once again, the risks experienced by cyclists are alleged to have been overstated and deliberately exaggerated.
This supports smaller shops by preventing large multiples from engaging in predatory pricing practices by aggressively discounting key goods to use as so called loss leaders. From the 1980s to mid-1990s the UK operated a system of laissez-faire with regard to retail policy. In 1991, 44% of Dutch train travellers went to their local station by bicycle and 14% used a bicycle at their destinations.
cyclist hostile ), trip-end facilities (particularly secure parking), retail policy, marketing the public image of cycling, integration with other transport modes, cycle training, terrain (hilly vs. Thus cycling might be marketed positively by interests that wish to promote it.
It can be argued that factors that directly influence trip length or journey time are among the most important in making cycling a competitive transport mode. These criteria are classified under the headings of: Engineering, Encouragement, Evaluation and Planning, Education, Enforcement. Trip length and journey times are key factors affecting cycle use.
9% of all shopping trips in Germany are by bicycle.